Cycle of Seasons in India
The complete reversal of direction of winds is the most striking feature of the monsoons. These changing monsoon winds result in the change of seasons over the year. It is, therefore, important to understand in detail, the prevailing weather conditions throughout India during different seasons.
Climatically, the year is divided into following four seasons in India –
- (i) The cold weather season – December to February;
- (ii) The hot weather season – March to May in South and upto June in the North;
- (iii) The advancing southwest monsoon season – June to September;
- (iv) The retreating southwest monsoons season – October and November.
The important characteristics of Cold weather season
- Low temperatures in the north and their gradual increase towards southern parts of India.
- Blowing of cold and dry northeast monsoon resulting in dry weather conditions in most parts. Coromandel coast receives rainfall during winter.
- Western disturbances cause light rain in northern plains and snowfall over the Himalayan ranges.
The main characteristic features of Hot weather season
- hot and dry weather
- blowing of Loo – a hot dry wind in northern plains
- afternoon dust storms, sometimes drizzle
- mild showers in Kerala (Mango showers)
- West Bengal and Assam (Northwesters / Kal Baisakhi).
The main features of Advancing Southwest monsoon season
- Low pressure conditions over northwestern parts of India and high pressure conditions over seas.
- The general wind direction particularly on the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal is southwest to northeast. They cause wide spread rain interspersed with dry spells.
- The onset of monsoons is in the first week of June and withdrawal by the end of September.
- The weather is generally hot and humid during this season.
The main characteristic features of Retreating Southwest monsoon season
- weakening of low pressure area over Northwest India;
- fall in temperatures throughout India;
- shifting of low pressure area to the south; and
- origin of cyclonic storms in the Bay of Bengal causing heavy rains and damage to crops and property along the eastern coast of India.
Bibliography : NIOS – Geography
- Monsoonal Unity in India
- Distribution of annual Rainfall
- The Retreating Southwest Monsoon Season
- The Advancing Southwest Monsoon Season
- The Hot Weather Season
- The Cold Weather Season
- The Concept and Mechanism of Monsoon
- Factors influencing the Climate of India
- Climate Variations in India
- Consequences Of Migration