India is a vast country with long distances. A dense and efficient network of transport is essential to –
- promote social cohesion,
- accelerate economic prosperity and
- ensure security and territorial integrity.
Transport consists of three different modes – land, water and air. Each one of them has some advantages and disadvantages. They all compete with one another. More importantly they complement each other and in the process constitute a single integrated network.
- Land transport comprises road and rail transport.
- Of the two, the rail transport is relatively new. It is highly useful for carrying heavy goods over long distances at affordable costs. It is most convenient and cost-effective for long distance passengers.
- The road transport on the other hand is very handy and convenient to carry goods and passenger over relatively short distances. Goods can be transported and handed over to a customer at his doorstep safely and at a reasonable cost.
- Water transport for passengers is now no more attractive; but it is an ideal means of transport to carry heavy and bulky goods along navigable rivers and across the oceans of the world.
- By far this is the most inexpensive means of transport despite being rather slow.
- Air transport is of recent origin, the other two have been as old as the nomadic man himself.
- It has become tremendously popular for people who are called upon to visit urgently various parts of the world at a very short notice.
- Despite high fares, it is indeed very economic as it saves both time and energy.
- It is now also used for carrying perishable goods and precious cargo from one part of the world to another.
- Recently due to introduction of various private airlines, fares have been reduced significantly both at domestic and international level.
Transport system links areas of production with those of consumption. It facilitates the movement of goods, services and people at local, regional, national and international levels.
Bibliography : NIOS Geography Book