Spatial Distribution Of Minerals And Energy Resources

The distribution of mineral and energy resources is uneven. It’s because occurrence of mineral resources are associated with certain types of geological formation.

System-wise distribution

  • Coal deposits are mostly associated with Gondwana system;
  • Major metallic minerals like copper, lead, zinc etc., are found in Dharwar and Cuddapah systems;
  • Major non-metallic minerals like limestone, dolomite, gypsum, calcium, sulphate etc., are found in Cuddapah and upper Vindhyan systems.

Region-wise distribution

  • Much of the peninsular region west of a line from Mangalore to Kanpur has very little mineral wealth.
  • East of the line which covers the state of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal. These states have the major reserve of –
    • metallic minerals – iron, bauxite, manganese etc., and
    • non-metallic minerals – coal, limestone, dolomite, gypsum etc.

    Most of these mineral bearing states are located in the peninsular plateau region of India. Within peninsular plateau region of India the following three mineral belts can be demarcated –

    • The North eastern plateaus
    • South-western plateaus
    • North-western region
    • Others

The North eastern plateaus

It covers –

  • Chota Nagpur plateau,
  • Orissa plateau and
  • Eastern Andhra plateau.

This belt contains rich deposits of a variety of minerals, especially used for metallurgical industries.

  • Prominent minerals that are large and widely distributed are iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, limestone, dolomite etc.
  • This region has also substantial amount deposit of copper, uranium, thorium, phosphate etc.

This region has also rich deposits coal, along the river valleys of Damodar, Mahanadi, Son etc.

South-western plateaus

  • This region extends over Karnataka plateau and adjoining Tamil Nadu plateau.
  • It is rich in metallic minerals particularly in iron ore, manganese and bauxite and in some non-metallic minerals.
  • All the three gold mines of India are found in this region.
  • However, coal is not found in this plateau region.

North-western region

  • This belt extends from Gulf of Khambhat in Gujarat to the Aravalli range in Rajasthan.
  • Petroleum and natural gas are principal resources of this belt.
  • Deposits of other minerals are small and scattered.
    • However, it is known for reserves and production of several non-ferrous metals particularly copper, silver, lead, and Zinc.


Outside of above three mineral belts –

  • Upper Brahmaputra valley is a significant petroleum producing area
  • Kerala possesses enormous concentration of heavy mineral sands.
  • Minerals deposits are very poor, scattered and reserves are inconsistent for other parts of India.


Bibliography : NIOS Geography Book



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