Fishing has been an important occupation of the people in the coastal areas. However, in spite of having a long coastline and broad continental shelf, India’s fishing industry is still largely in a developing stage. Modernization on limited scale has started recently.
Fisheries are of two types –
- (i) the inland and
- (ii) the open sea.
The inland fishing is done in rivers, tanks, ponds and canals. The major rivers like Brahmaputra, Ganga, Satluj, Narmada, Mahanadi and Godavari; and numerous tanks and ponds are tapped for fishing. Inland fish production is accounted for two fifths or 40 percent of total fish production in India during 1995-96.
Open sea fishing or marine fishing, done in sea water, is caught in shallow water in our country. More than two-thirds of marine fish is landed on western coast of India. While remaining one-third on the eastern coast . India caught 5.6 lakhs tonnes of fish during 2000-01.
Though, India has huge potential for fishing but the actual catch is very small. The main factors responsible for poor performance in fishing are –
- traditional methods,
- wooden loge made boats,
- driven by human energy, and
- poor socio-economic conditions of the fishermen.
In order to increase fish production and trade, the Government has taken a number of steps including –
- (i) financial assistance to fishermen
- (ii) introduction of large vessels
- (iii) better harbours and breathing facilities
- (iv) provision of refrigerated wagons and road transport facility
- (v) introduction of accident insurance scheme and
- (vi) marketing of fish on co-operative basis.
The rapid increase in the production of fish in the country is called Blue Revolution. This is synonymous with shrimp farming or Aquaplosion.
Bibliography : NIOS Geography Book