Water is national valuable reserve. It is essential for the Govt. to evolve policy for the development and management of water resources so that surface and underground water is not only properly used but also served for the future. Nature of rainfall has also compelled us to think in this direction.
‘National Water Policy’ was formulated and accepted in September 1987. It was revised in 2002 and presented as ‘National Water Policy’ 2002 when many problems arose in the previous policy during the course of time.
Water is an important constituent of ecosystem. It should be considered essential for all kinds of life. It should be developed, conserved and managed in a planned manner. It is essential to think about its social and economic aspects of water as large areas of the country suffer due to drought and floods every year. It causes not only the loss of property and human life but the wheel of development is also stopped.
- The problems of floods and drought are not limited to the boundaries of a particular state. This requires thinking at the national level.
- Several problems arise in planning and working on water resources. Among these continued nutrition of atmosphere, proper transfer and rehabilitation of men and animal, health security of dams are such problems which can be tackled in a specific period.
- The problem of standing water and salinity in the soil arise in some areas.
- More exploitation of underground water in many areas of the country have posed serious challenge.
It is essential to think about all these problems under a general policy.
The production of food grains in the decade of 1950 was 500 lakh tons which rose to 2080 lakh tons in 1999-2000. We have to increase the amount of food grains to 3500 lakh tons in 2025. The demand of water would increase in domestic, industries, energy production sectors etc.
Water resources are already less, those will become further less in future. Quality of water is also an important aspect. Pollution of surface and underground water, has been increasing.
- Main sources of water pollution due to human activities include domestic waste water, industrial effluents and chemicals used in agricultural.
- Sometimes water pollution is also caused by natural factors.
- Erosion, landslides, decomposition of plants and animals are the main nature sources of water pollution.
Three fourths of the total surface water in our country is polluted.
Bibliography : NIOS Geography Book