The Great Plateau of India is surrounded by plains on all sides –
- in the north lies the Great Northern Plain and
- in south, along the east and west lie the Coastal Plains.
East Coastal Plain
East Coastal Plain extends along the coast of the Bay of Bengal from Ganga Delta in the north to Kanyakumari in the south.
This plain is broader than the western coastal Plains.
This plain includes the deltas of the rivers Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.
Chilka, Pulicat and Koluru lakes are the famous lagoons of this plain. These lakes have been formed by enclosing small parts of the Bay of Bengal behind sand bars.
- Lake Chilka is situated south of the delta of Mahanadi. The lake measures 75 km in length.
- Lake Pulicut is situated north of Chennai city.
- Koluru lake is situated between the deltas of the Godavari and Krishna rivers.
The east coastal plain is fertile where rice grows in plenty.
West Coastal Plain
West Coastal Plain extends along the Arabian Sea from the Rann of Kutchch in the north to Kanyakumari in the south.
Except for the Gujarat plain, the western coastal plains are narrower than the eastern coastal plain. From southern Gujarat upto Mumbai this plain is comparatively broader, but it narrows southwards of Mumbai.
Occasionally rocky domes and hills are visible in the plains of Gujarat, the Rann of Kutchch and the plains of Kathiawar.
The plains of Gujarat are made up of black soil.
The coastal strip extending for about 500 km between Daman in the north and Goa in the south is called Konkan.
This region is highly dissected and the coast line is indented or irregular with several natural harbours. A number of small and seasonal rivers flow through this region.
The coast from Goa to Mangalore is called the Karnataka coast.
The coast from Mangalore upto Kanyakumari is called the Malabar coast. Here the coastal plain is wider.
There are a number of long and narrow lagoons. 80 km long Vembanad is an example of its kind. Kochi port is situated on one of the lagoons.
Bibliography : NIOS Geography Book