Development Of Geography


Ancient Period

The earliest records illustrate the interests of scholars in understanding the physical domain of the earth by making maps and astronomical measurements. The Greeks are given the credit of being the earliest geographers, prominent among them being Hower, Herodotus, Thales Aristotle and Eratosthenes.

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Pre-Modern Period

This period starting from the middle of 15th century and continuous with 18th early provides us enormous information about the physical and cultural nature of the world by the travels and explorations of early gergrophers.

The early seventeenth century witnessed the beginnings of a new scientific geography.

  • Christopher Columbus and Vasco de gama, Fesdinend Meghellan and Thomas cook were important explorers and travelers among those.
  • Varenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter led the geographers of this period.

They contributed in the development of cartography and discovering new lands, and developing geography into a scientific disciplines.

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Modern Period

Ritter and Humboldt are frequently referred to us the founders of modern geography.

Generally, latter half of nineteenth century is considered as a period of modern geography.

The first modern geographer in true sense was Ratzel who built the structure of modern geography on the foundations laid down by classical geographers.

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Recent Period

The development of geography during the post Second World War period has been very rapid.

The American and European geographers such as Hartshorne have contributed the maximum during this phase. Harthshorne described geography as a science dealing with areal differentiation.

The present day geographers look upon regional approach and systematic approach as complimentary rather than contradictory.

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Bibliography : NIOS – Geography

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